For a true synchronization experience you have three choices, the Google Cloud, a third party application, and hosted exchange. Each has advantages and disadvantages, so it is up to the individual to decide.
Google Cloud has the Outlook sync provided by Google, but it is up to you if you want to trust Google with all of your information. On your device contacts and calendar are shown in the Google app. No direct connection between PC and Android devices are required.
Third party apps are purchased from Google Play and have varying results. Each device has to be corrected directly to the PC to sync with Outlook.
Exchange hosting is my choice and seamlessly syncs Outlook email, contacts, calendar, and notes with all of your Android devices. Notably exchange is the most costly option, but you get true synchronization without having to connect your devices to your PC.
For and initial transfer of contacts you can export from Outlook as vcards and import those into your Android device, but your question was about synchronization.
If you are looking for a similar BlackBerry experience, I fear that you will be disappointed.
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